By the midth century, "lollard" had come to mean a heretic in general. The alternative, "Wycliffite", is generally accepted to be a more neutral term covering those of similar opinions, but having an academic background. The term is said to have been coined by the Anglo-Irish cleric Henry Crumpebut its origin is uncertain.
See Article History Lollard, in late medieval England, a follower, after aboutof John Wycliffea University of Oxford philosopher and theologian whose unorthodox religious and social doctrines in some ways anticipated those of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation.
At Oxford in the s, Wycliffe came to advocate increasingly radical religious views.
He denied the doctrine of transubstantiation and stressed the importance of preaching and the primacy of Scripture as the source of Christian doctrine.
Claiming that the office of the papacy lacked scriptural justification, he equated the pope with Antichrist and welcomed the 14th-century schism in the papacy as a prelude to its destruction. Wycliffe was charged with heresy and retired from Oxford in Nevertheless, he was never brought to trial, and he continued to write and preach until his death in The first Lollard group centred c.
In William Courtenayarchbishop of Canterburyforced some of the Oxford Lollards to renounce their views and conform to Roman Catholic doctrine. The sect continued to multiply, however, among townspeople, merchants, gentry, and even the lower clergy.
Several knights of the royal household gave their support, as well as a few members of the House of Commons. The accession of Henry IV in signaled a wave of repression against heresy.
In the first English statute was passed for the burning of heretics. Driven underground, the movement operated henceforth chiefly among tradespeople and artisans, supported by a few clerical adherents.
About a Lollard revival began, and before the old Lollard and the new Protestant forces had begun to merge. From its early days the Lollard movement tended to discard the scholastic subtleties of Wycliffe, who probably wrote few or none of the popular tracts in English formerly attributed to him.
The most complete statement of early Lollard teaching appeared in the Twelve Conclusions, drawn up to be presented to the Parliament of The hallowing of wine, bread, altars, vestments, and so forth was related to necromancy. Prelates should not be temporal judges and rulers, for no man can serve two masters.
The Conclusions also condemned special prayers for the dead, pilgrimages, and offerings to images, and they declared confession to a priest unnecessary for salvation. Warfare was contrary to the New Testament, and vows of chastity by nuns led to the horrors of abortion and child murder.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Sven Fristedt, The Wycliff Bible Stockholm 53C. Lindberg StN 42 70 Mss & versions of Wycliffite bibleAnne Hudson MAE 40 71 A Lollard Sermon CycleAnne Hudson RES 22 71 A Lollard Quire [with knight & clerk discussing q.
of Lordship]Peggy Ann Knapp Spec. 46 71 Wycliff as bible translatorAnne Hudson NQ 20 73 Contrib. to a bibliog. of Wycliffite writings. The History of Lollardy by Jeff Hobbs L O L L A R D Y in late 14th Century England.
Britannia's biography of John Wycliffe highlights some of his criticisms of the Church, and also tells how certain of his followers became known as Lollards.
In the last twenty years or so of the fourteenth century, Lollards became a serious threat to the established Church. Lollardy survived amongst artisans in the Midlands and the South of England, and there were occasional executions for heresy throughout the 15th Century.
However, Lollardy never became a . Lollardy's wiki: Lollardy (Lollardism, Lollard movement) was a pre-Protestant Christian religious movement that existed from the midth century to the English Reformation. It was initially led by John Wycliffe, a Roman Catholic theologian who was dismissed from the Univ.
Wycliffe and Lollardy During the s or the Dark Ages as we might call it, the Church headed by the Pope was the centre of power. The hierarchical ordering of the clergy and the nobility occupying the highest position and the common people occupying the lowest status is unbending.
John Wycliffe had come to regard the scriptures as the only reliable guide to the truth about God, and maintained that all Christians should rely on the Bible rather than on the teachings of popes and clerics.
He said that there was no scriptural justification for the papacy. General Prologue of the Wycliffe Bible; Lollardy.