Etymology[ edit ] The word syntax comes from Ancient Greek: Sequencing of subject, verb, and object[ edit ] A basic feature of a language's syntax is the sequence in which the subject Sverb Vand object O usually appear in sentences. This system took as its basic premise the assumption that language is a direct reflection of thought processes and therefore there is a single, most natural way to express a thought.
In contrast to Plato's claim that the soul can exist apart from the body, Aristotle argued De Anima Bk. Just as the form of an axe is whatever enables it to cut, and the form of an eye is whatever enables it to see, the human soul is to be identified with whichever powers and capacities enable a natural, organized human body to fulfill its defining function, which, according to Aristotle, is to survive and flourish as a living, acting, perceiving, and reasoning being.
So, Aristotle argues, the soul is inseparable from the body, and comprises whichever capacities are required for a body to live, perceive, reason, and act.
See Shields,and Nelson,for further debate about whether Aristotle's view can be considered to be a version of functionalism. A second, relatively early, ancestor of contemporary functionalism is Hobbes's account of reasoning as a kind of computation that proceeds by mechanistic principles comparable to the rules of arithmetic.
It was not until the middle of the 20th century, however, that it became common to speculate that thinking may be nothing more than rule-governed computation that can be carried out by creatures of various physical types. As an empirical psychological theory, behaviorism holds that the behavior of humans and other animals can be explained by appealing solely to behavioral dispositions, that is, to the lawlike tendencies of organisms to behave in certain ways, given certain environmental stimulations.
Behavioral dispositions, unlike thoughts, feelings, and other internal states that can be directly observed only by introspection, are objectively observable and are indisputably part of the natural world.
Thus they seemed to be fit entities to figure centrally in the emerging science of psychology. Behaviorism indeed had some early successes, especially in the domain of animal learning, and its principles are still used, at least for heuristic purposes, in various areas of psychology.
But as many psychologists and others, e. Chomsky have argued, the successes of behaviorism seem to depend upon the experimenters' implicit control of certain variables which, when made explicit, involve ineliminable reference to organisms' other mental states.
For example, rats are typically placed into an experimental situation at a certain fraction of their normal body weight — and thus can be assumed to feel hunger and to want the food rewards contingent upon behaving in certain ways.
Similarly, it is assumed that humans, in analogous experimental situations, want to cooperate with the experimenters, and understand and know how to follow the instructions. It seemed to the critics of behaviorism, therefore, that theories that explicitly appeal to an organism's beliefs, desires, and other mental states, as well as to stimulations and behavior, would provide a fuller and more accurate account of why organisms behave as they do.
They could do so, moreover, without compromising the objectivity of psychology as long as the mental states to which these theories appeal are introduced as states that together play a role in the production of behavior, rather than states identifiable solely by introspection.
Logical behaviorism, in contrast to behaviorism as a psychological theory, is a thesis about the meanings of our mental state terms or concepts. According to logical behaviorism, all statements about mental states and processes are equivalent in meaning to statements about behavioral dispositions.
In addition, logical behaviorists argued that if statements about mental states were equivalent in meaning to statements about behavioral dispositions, there could be an unproblematic account of how mental state terms could be applied both to oneself and others, and how they could be taught and learned.
However, as many philosophers have pointed out Chisholm ; Geachlogical behaviorism provides an implausible account of the meanings of our mental state terms, since, intuitively, a subject can have the mental states in question without the relevant behavioral dispositions — and vice versa.
For example, Gene may believe that it's going to rain even if he's not disposed to wear a raincoat and take an umbrella when leaving the house or to perform any other cluster of rain-avoiding behaviorsif Gene doesn't mind, or actively enjoys, getting wet.
And subjects with the requisite motivation can suppress their tendencies to pain behavior even in the presence of excruciating pain, while skilled actors can perfect the lawlike disposition to produce pain behavior under certain conditions, even if they don't actually feel pain.
Putnam The problem, these philosophers argued, is that no mental state, by itself, can be plausibly assumed to give rise to any particular behavior unless one also assumes that the subject possesses additional mental states of various types.
And so, it seemed, it was not in fact possible to give meaning-preserving translations of statements invoking pains, beliefs, and desires in purely behavioristic terms. It's important to recognize, however, that there is at least some overlap in the bloodlines of these different strains of functionalism, and also that there are functionalist theories, both earlier and more recent, that fall somewhere in between.The Career-leaning NETWORK plombier-nemours.com page 4 A closely-similar analysis re-appears as ‘personal management’, ‘learning and work exploration’ and ‘life-work building’ in the Canadian Blue Print for Life-Work Designs.
A. Introduction. Contents Index End. In their discourses on government, Plato and Aristotle discussed all those problems which were important to an Attic citizen if he were to understand and order his plombier-nemours.com encyclopædic approach was also used in theories of government that were developed in the Middle Ages (Rehm L/).
Functionalists focus on the positive functions of the nuclear family, such as secondary socialisation and the stabilisation of adult personalities. The Career-leaning NETWORK plombier-nemours.com page 1 the story engaging a debate ‘Community interaction’ is the phrase used to refer to how people manage careers in a social context.
It was introduced into what was - and still is - an ongoing debate. Deviance: Functionalist Explanations Deviance: Functionalist Explanations 3 3 What Happens if the Collective Conscience Fails The result according to Durkheim, was the development of . Functionalism in the philosophy of mind is the doctrine that what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way it functions, or the role it plays, in the system of which it is a part.