Descobri coisas que jamais imaginei, mesmo conhecendo pessoas que fazem uso da droga.
Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. Becker, incidentally, conducted the interviews from which The Fantastic Lodge was assembled.
And it is what Becker does in Outsiders. Becker has the further distinction of being one of the few sociologists up to now who has attempted to develop a general sociological theory on the basis of this material.
Becker sets his study within a fairly simple scheme. His main point is the suggestive notion that deviance, like beauty, lies in the eye of the beholder—or, as is sometimes the case, in the fiat of the lawmaker.
Deviance is neither absolute nor patently recognizable. Nor, Becker argues, is it easily achieved. It is the result rather of a series of many choices, for, like successes, deviants have careers too. And like almost everyone else, they also belong to individual cultures sub-cultures in sociological parlance that teach and sustain them, and in particular aid the deviants in offsetting the conventional morality to which most cannot help but remain sensitive.
Becker makes these general observations concrete in the intriguing case studies that form the core and best part of Outsiders. He examines two deviant groups, one criminal marijuana smokersthe other merely eccentric dance musiciansand by judicious use of direct quotations, presents the career patterns and cultures of both.
The quotations from interviews do not appear in Outsiders, as in most sociological works, like patches of rich Faulknerian prose in a parched exegetical wasteland. They are the material with which Becker sets out to make a coherent picture of two deviant worlds.
This he does with great sophistication and care. What, then, are marijuana smokers and dance musicians like?
In the first place, they are like everyone else—and then they learn to be different. In something of a how-to-do-it chapter, Becker explains that there are three phases through which an individual must pass to become a successful marijuana user.
First he must learn the proper method of smoking. But to most novices the effects of being high are quite frightening, so the last stage in successful marijuana use is learning to enjoy the effects one has learned to perceive.
As an experienced user explained of the apprentices: These quotations show clearly that becoming a marijuana user is very much of a social activity. As the novice moves from step to step, Becker explains, the group helps him develop the justifications which he will need in order to neutralize in his own mind the legal and social disapprobation of his behavior.
Justifications range from arguing that marijuana is less harmful than other more common vices—alcohol, for instance—to insisting that it actually has beneficial effects—like creating a strong appetite. First of all, he must deal with the demands of his parents or his wife to have a conventional life—a day job and steady pay.
If he cannot somehow quiet these demands, for himself at least, he will leave off being a musician.
If he can, he faces a second decision: His choice in this respect largely determines which musical cliques he belongs to, the kinds of jobs he will accept, and the type of success at which he aims.
See, if you play commercial like that, you can get in with these cliques that have all the good jobs and you can really do well. When you sit on that stand up there, you feel so different from others.Howard Saul Becker, Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, New York: The Free Press, File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it .
Outsiders - Studies in the Sociology of Deviance by Howard S. Becker. Outsiders - Studies in the Sociology of Deviance; Author: Howard S. Becker: Language: English: Publisher: Chapter 1 - Outsiders Chapter 2 - Kinds of Deviance - A Sequential Model. In order to discuss models of deviance, the author introduces four types of deviant behaviour:Author: Howard S.
Becker. Outsiders by Howard S. Becker - One of the most groundbreaking sociology texts of the 20th century, Howard S. Becker’s Outsiders revolutionized the study of. Howard Becker's Outsiders broke new ground in the early s, arguing that social deviance is a more common phenomenon that perceived and that conventional wisdom /5(18).
Howard S. Becker, born April 18th , is a well known renowned American Sociologist. Of all his many writings, ‘Outsiders’, which was written in , is one of his most imperative and prominent works, regarded as critical classical study within the discipline of sociology and deviance.
Howard S. Becker’s Outsiders broke new ground in the early s—and the ideas it proposed and problems it raised are still argued about and inspiring research internationally. In this new edition, Becker includes two lengthy essays, unpublished until now, that add fresh material for thought and plombier-nemours.com Edition: Reissue.