History of miniature illuminated manuscript Art historians classify illuminated manuscripts into their historic periods and types, including but not limited to Late Antique, InsularCarolingian manuscriptsOttonian manuscriptsRomanesque manuscriptsGothic manuscriptsand Renaissance manuscripts.
Ginn,] The Sources of History It is clear that all our information in regard to past events and conditions must be derived from evidence of some kind. This evidence is called the source. Sometimes there are a number of good and reliable sources for an event, as, for example, for the decapitation of King Charles I of England inor for the march of Napoleon into Russia.
Sometimes there is but a single, unreliable source, as, for instance, in the case of the burial of King Alaric in a river bed. For a great many important matters about which we should like to know there are, unfortunately, no written sources at all, and we can only guess how things were.
For example, we do not know what the Germans were doing before Julius Caesar came into contact with them and took the trouble to give a brief account of them. We can learn but little about the bishops of Rome or popes before the time of the Emperor Constantine for few references to them have come down to us.
Moreover, Gibbon carefully studied and compared all the primary sources, and it may be urged that he has given a truer, fuller, and more attractive account of the period than can be found in any one of them. It is therefore not a primary but a secondary source.
The Problem of Secondhand Knowledge Most of the historical knowledge current among is not, however, derived from even secondary source such as Gibbon and similar authoritative writers, comes from the reading of textbooks, encyclopedia stories, dramas, and magazine articles.
Popular manual and articles are commonly written by those who know little or nothing of the primary sources; they are consequently at least third hand, even when based upon the best secondary accounts.
As a matter of fact, they usually patched together from older manuals and articles and may be four, five, or six removes from the original source of knowledge. It is well known that the oftener a report passes from mouth to mouth the less trustworthy and accurate does it tend to become.
Unimportant details which appeal to the imagination will be magnified, while fundamental considerations are easily forgotten, if they happen be prosaic and commonplace.
Historians, like other people, are sometimes fond of good stories and may be led astray by some false rumor which, once started into circulation, gets farther and farther from the truth with each repetition.
For example, a distinguished historian of the Church, Cardinal Baronius, writing aboutmade the statement, upon very insufficient evidence, that, as the year approached, the people of Europe generally believed that the world was about to come to an end.
Robertson, a very popular Scotch historian of the eighteenth century, repeated the statement and went on to describe the terrible panic which seized upon sinful men as the awful year drew on.
About thirty years ago, however, a French scholar pointed out that there was really no adequate basis for this strange tale. To the chroniclers of the time the year was clearly no more portentous than or This story of the panic, which passed current as historical fact for some three hundred years, offers an excellent illustration of the danger of relying upon secondary sources.
In this case historical revisionism has come full circle - there are now a number of historians who do think the year was of some cultural importance. Every conscientious historian would wish, however, to go still farther and directly see the evidence and draw personal conclusions.
In this way mastery would be gained of all that the past has handed down to us upon this subject and all that is to be known about the matter.
The most reliable historians, therefore, are ones who examines the sources for themselves, but who at the same time take advantage of the suggestions, criticisms, and explanations which have been made by other scholars who have also studied the original documents.
These works of nineteenth-century scholarship remain valuable, but must be supplemented by newer and more recent guides. For current students whose primary language is English, the Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a good place to find basic starting points for research.
Give an example of a primary source. Give and example of a secondary source. Discuss the problem of using information from newspaper articles and textbooks? What happened in the nineteenth-century to make primary sources from the middle ages more accessible?
From the discussion above, scholars from which nations lead the research effort. What is the Monumenta Germaniae Historica?
What questions should you ask about a modern writer of history in order to determine reliability? Suggest ways in which you might find out if the modern English-language writer has looked at primary and secondary sources in a language other than English?Greek-Islamic medicine in India and Pakistan Presented by Jan Just Witkam (University of Leiden, The manuscript dated Source: MS Leiden Or.
Collective volume with texts in Pashto, Persian and Urdu First an essay on medicine, then a description of therapies and well-tested medicines.
It is published. The practice of medicine in the Middle Ages was rooted in the Greek tradition. Hippocrates, considered the “father of Medicine,” described the body as made up of four humors—yellow bile, phlegm, black bile, and blood—and controlled by the four elements—fire, water, earth, and air.
A medieval manuscript is a codex (pl. codices), meaning a book made of pages bound between two boards. Ancient scribes wrote on scrolls that were stored in boxes.
These ancient scrolls only survive in occasional fragments, as a scroll is especially vulnerable to physical degradation. Bulletin of the History of Medicine () Margaret R.
Schleissner, ed. Manuscript Sources of Medieval Medicine: A Book of Essays. Garland Medieval Casebooks. New York: Garland. A research guide to primary and secondary sources for the history of science and medicine.
book, An essay on the venereal diseases which have been confounded with syphilis courtesy of Medical Heritage Library.
detail from a 13th century manuscript courtesy of the MacKinney Collection of Medieval Medical Illustrations & Elizabeth. Medieval and Renaissance Studies Full Text Primary Sources Search Medieval and Renaissance Studies: Full Text Primary Sources.
A Guide to Research in Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Home; Finding Books scholarly, multi-media electronic archive containing a medieval manuscript tradition—that of Chrétien de Troyes's Le Chevalier .