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See Article History Alternative Title: This can happen in the form of an assembly An analysis of the greek system of democracy or by initiative and referendum with ballot voting, with direct voting on issues instead of for candidates or parties. Sometimes the term is also used for electing representatives in a direct vote as opposed to indirect elections by voting for an electing body, electoral collegeetc.
Direct democracy may be understood as a full-scale system of political institutions, but in modern times, it means most often specific decision-making institutions in the broader system environment of representative democracy.
Switzerland and many U. In a more general perspective, the ensuing introduction or practical use of direct-democratic institutions originated from three major types of developments: Modern democracy most often developed not from the starting point of assembly democracy but, under absolutist or feudal conditions, from people gradually claiming a larger share of political representation and extension of representative voting rights.
Thus, in many countries and theories, these principles have been tied to and absorbed by a narrow notion of representative democracy rather than being used to support a more comprehensive concept of democracy.
Normative theory of direct democracy still rests basically on popular sovereignty, freedom, and political equality, with Jean-Jacques Rousseau as the outstanding theorist of unanimous consent of the people for a free republican constitution and subsequent forms of participation.
During the 19th century, these principles were increasingly challenged, or they were deprived of their substance beyond representative institutions. So, in many countries, direct-democratic institutions have not been established or implemented since representative elites developed a strong interest in monopolizing power.
In addition, pragmatic theories contended that direct democracy could not work under space and time conditions of large modern states. With this background of historical and theoretical restrictions, the normative theory of direct democracy cannot exclusively rest on popular sovereignty, which is also claimed by representative democracy.
More specific arguments originate from the participatory theory of democracy and the critique of a lack of responsiveness and legitimacy of representative party democracy.
The two sets of democratic institutions are distinguished by basic features of direct participation: Like electoral systems, a variety of procedural forms, designs, and regulations are likely to influence processes and outcome.
One must also keep in mind that direct-democratic processes cannot operate in isolation but are always linked to the structures of an overall political system that includes major representative institutions.
Thus, interactions between the two types of institutions will be an important challenge for analysis. For instance, as political scientist George Tsebelis notes, referendum voters can be seen as an additional veto player.
Some authors contend that direct democracy may undermine representative democracy, while others focus on the deliberative functions for a democratic public sphere and the capacity for integrating citizens in the democratic process.
One can also assume that basic types or forms of direct-democratic procedures may result in different consequences. Variety of forms and system environment Direct democracy comes in a variety of institutional forms, with the common feature of procedures focusing on popular votes on political issues.
Their main forms can be distinguished by the actors who start the procedure.
40 (Volume 20, No. 1) March, Introduction by The Editors. SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT Frank Rosengarten – Looking Back in Order to Look Ahead: Twenty Years of Research and Publishing by the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Victor Wallis – Socialism and Democracy During the First 20 Years of Socialism and Democracy. Aristotle (— B.C.E.) Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and plombier-nemours.com was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. He was more empirically-minded than Plato or Socrates and . The Greek system of Democracy did have its shares of problems though. The Greek system of democracy was ruled by a body of nine elected officials whom were called archons. These men who were aristocrats lead the government and had supreme control over all of the verdicts and criminal accusations in Athens.
Mandatory referendums have to be held when a referendum vote is required by law e. Referendums of governmental authorities take place when a president, cabinet, or legislature decides, under preregulated conditions or ad hoc, to call a popular vote on a particular issue.
Sometimes, a minority of a legislature also is entitled to demand such a vote. A popular vote may be binding according to the simple or specific majority or turnout requirements for a valid vote or may be defined as only consultative or advisory. Some jurisdictions provide an agenda initiative that allows citizens with the support of a minimum number of signatures to place a particular issue on the agenda of a government or legislative authority.
Such proposals have to be considered by the authority addressed, but they do not lead to a referendum vote. There are some ambiguity and controversy as to whether procedures with a focus on directly electing or recalling holders of public office executive positions, legislators may be meaningfully included in the concept of direct democracy.
These procedures refer, in fact, to the institutional system of representative democracy and its typical processes and, therefore, are not at the core of debates on direct democracy.
However, there may be some differences in the degree to which voters have a direct influence on the final outcome of an electoral procedure e. In recall procedures, interrupting routine patterns of fixed office terms may stress the aspect of citizens reclaiming control of office functions.
In practice, recall options of executive office holders are much more common than of members of legislative bodies or of complete legislatures. Procedural types of direct democracy should be distinguished according to the main initiating actor of a procedure because they typically show different features regarding the agenda setter, the contents and wording of the proposal, the function of the ballot vote in terms of legitimation, innovationand so on.
Governmental authorities initiating a referendum vote generally seek legitimation for policies on the government agenda, will regularly advocate an affirmative vote, and will have many ways of influencing process and outcome, including official communication resources.
Therefore, the term plebiscite is often used, even more so when they are employed by autocratic or dictatorial regimes that cannot be called democratic at all. Mandatory referendums also very often originate from governmental authorities entitled to bring forward proposals for which ratification by a referendum vote is required, particularly in the case of constitutional amendments or matters of state sovereignty, territory, or identity.
Thus, whereas a popular vote on such specific subjects is required by law, the agenda and the substance of the referendum proposal are most often determined by governmental authorities.
In such a setting, the political initiative comes from social or minority forces, whereas governmental authorities are likely to be in a defensive position and want to defeat the proposals in a referendum vote. Except for ad hoc referendum calls by governmental authorities, procedures of direct democracy, particularly citizen-initiated procedures, are regulated in various aspects.
The area of admissible subject matters may be very restrictive; the number of signatures required for qualifying an initiative for a ballot vote may range from about 1 percent to one-third of eligible voters; and the time allowed for collecting signatures may be very short.
Requirements for the validity of a popular vote may also vary from a majority of voters to qualified or double majorities or to specific turnout quorums.Direct democracy: Direct democracy, forms of direct participation of citizens in democratic decision making, in contrast to indirect or representative democracy.
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Democracy (“rule by the people” when translated from its Greek meaning) is seen as one of the ultimate ideals that modern civilizations strive to create, or preserve.
Pericles then continues to his central theme, extolling the uniqueness and virtue of Athens and its system of government: democracy. Pericles describes Athenian democracy as a system of government where men advance on merit rather than on class or wealth.
Faculty Name. Department. Email ; Armstrong, Piers. MLL. [email protected] Tofighi, Maryam. Marketing. [email protected] Abbott, Mary Ann. Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative government or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the .